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Azimuth is the horizontal angle around a fixed reference point, typically measured from 0 to 360 degrees.
Beam width is a figure-of-merit used to compare antennas.
Beam width is measured as the angle between the half-power (-3 dB) points referenced to the peak power on boresight (centre of beam).
Clutter refers to objects that cause unwanted reflections to be seen by radars. Grass, bushes, trees, water, parked cars, posts and buildings are all sources of clutter. High levels of clutter can cause performance issues with radar systems, especially if the clutter moves.
This is a software program. With the camera under test connected to your computer, this software will check the compatibility of the camera with our radar. The generated report should be emailed to us for verification.
Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power.
EIRP allow direct comparison between antennas with different beam widths by showing the hypothetical power that would need to be transmitted in all directions (isotropic) to have the same transmitted power as the antenna's strongest direction. Telecommunication regulatory bodies usually state maximum permissible transmission power levels as EIRP.
Elevation is the vertical angle above or below fixed reference plane, typically measured from -90 to +90 degrees.
FM stands for frequency modulation. CW stands for continuous wave. Continuous wave radars constantly transmit a signal, the opposite to pulsed radar. CW is ideal for short ranges. To measure target range without using pulses, the transmitted CW frequency is modulated (shifted up and down), hence FMCW.
License exempt means the equipment conforms to regulations that permit operation without the user first obtaining a license from the relevant radio regulation authority.
Linear polarisation refers to the orientation of radio waves as they travel through the air. Linearly polarised waves are orientated in a straight line at a fixed angle, often horizontal or vertical. Compare to circular polarisation where the radio waves appear to corkscrew through the air. Linear polarisation is normally used when the transmitter and receiver cannot be independently rotated. Circular polarisation is often used for weather radar to measure raindrops and satellite communication when the satellite position is not fixed in the sky.
This is an industry standard which defines protocols for IP PTZ camera interfacing
A Profile S ONVIF device sends video data over an IP network to a Profile S client such as a VMS.
A radome is a protective plastic cover that allows microwaves to pass through but prevents water from entering the radar.
Summary of applicable standards:
EN300440 describes performance requirements and conformance test procedures for licence exempt Short Range Devices (SRDs) intending to use frequency bands within the range of 1 GHz to 40 GHz. It defines technical requirements to support the essential requirements of the Radio Equipment Directive that states "Radio equipment shall be so constructed that it both effectively uses and supports the efficient use of radio spectrum in order to avoid harmful interference".
EN301489 details the Electro-Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) requirements and tests for radio communications equipment. It specifies the applicable EMC tests, the methods of measurement, the limits and the performance criteria.
IEC60950 is a safety standard for information technology equipment. The standard covers internal components, protection against electric shock, mechanical safety, temperature and electric performance and connection for electric communication circuit.
Frequently Asked Questions
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RADAR stands for Radio Detection And Ranging.
It uses radio waves to detect objects and measure ranges.
In our case the very high frequency radio waves are called microwaves.
The basic principle of radar is to transmit a microwave signal and measure the reflected "echo" signals from objects in the field of view. Radar signals travel at a fixed speed so the time between signal transmission and reception allows range to object to be measured.
Large objects typically reflect more of the signal than smaller objects so the radar is able to estimate the size of the object.
If the radar has a narrow field of view that can be moved (for example rotated) then the radar can measure the direction of the detected object by showing the direction where the echo reflection was seen.
All objects reflect microwaves so ground surveillance radar must used sophisticated signal processing techniques to filter real targets from the background environment.
All products from our Scan-360 range have been designed to avoid mutual interference with other products in the same range.
Other manufacturer's radar equipment has the potential to cause interference if it operates in the same 24GHz frequency band. There is a possibility of interference within close proximity to very high power long-range air traffic control and military radars.
The most obvious sources of interference are other devices operating in the 24GHz frequency band. These may be point-to-point data links, microwave security sensors, or first generation vehicle radars.
Mobile equipment and vehicle radars are of less concern than fixed equipment as they can be easily moved. 24GHz vehicle radars have been phased out and are not very common.
Typical household or business equipment, Wifi, Bluetooth, mobile telephones, microwave ovens, infrared detectors and CCTV cameras are unlikely to cause interference.
To mitigate interference: Switch off any un-used equipment that may be interfering.
Try to increase the distance between the equipments or arrange to have solid objects such as a metal screens or buildings positioned between them.
If possible orientate equipments so they do not point toward each other, although bear in mind that 360-degree scanning radars will point in all directions.
Microwaves and radio waves are safe non-ionising radiation. This is completely different to dangerous ionising radiation from nuclear sources.
A typical domestic microwave oven emits 1kW (1000W) to heat food. Our equipment only emits 0.1W, so is 10,000 times lower and is safe for human exposure.
It is safe to stand right next to the radar.
The safe distance is 0mm, which means there is no danger at any proximity to the equipment.
Some competitor systems emit more power and have an increased safe distance. Always follow the manufacturer safety instructions.
Ingress Protection rating 66. This means the equipment is dust-tight and protected against water jets, so is suitable for outdoor usage.
All equipment is fitted with a RJ45 Ethernet connector that provides the necessary data and power (PoE) connection. An auxiliary multi-way connector may optionally be used for other uses such as a contact-closure output. Some equipment may also have a connector for an external GPS antenna.
An up-to-date web browser is required to configure the radar settings using web pages.
No, unless the optional heater circuitry is fitted as this draws more power than can be provided by Power-over-Ethernet (PoE).
The internal GPS receiver provides a very precise timing signal that can be used to synchronise the transmissions of multiple radars and so reduce the effects of mutual interference.
To use this facility the radar must have a clear, unobstructed view of the sky.
An added benefit is the ability of the radar to automatically determine its location.
In theory any Pan, Tilt, Zoom (PTZ) camera that is ONVIF compatible, uses profile S and uses absolute zero referencing will work with our radars. If you are in doubt download our Compatibility Checker and confirm.
Our products have not been designed for maritime use and we do not specify performance over water. However we have demonstrated a basic ability to detect and track boats. (Click here to the video footage).
Water (especially waves) act as clutter so the detection probability for small targets, such as swimmers, may be poor and false alarm rate will be higher than over land.
We recommend that customers interested in using our radar over water perform their own testing to determine if the product is suitable. For best performance we recommend mounting the radar as low as possible to reduce the effect of waves.
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We recommend using the same pole, however it is possible for the radar to be positioned on a different pole. Bear in mind that as the distance between radar and camera increases care is needed to accurately calibrate the camera position to ensure camera accuracy.
Below the minimum height the radar would struggle to have line-of-sight to targets as small plants or objects could block the signal. As the height increases beyond the maximum, coverage close to the radar may reduce due to the shape of the antenna beams.
Scan-360 should be mounted high enough to be able to see over any expected obstacles. If vandalism is a possibility it should be mounted out of reach. We typically recommend between 2 to 4 metres.
A simple method is to walk away from the radar in a direction where the maximum range can be reached. If possible choose a direction with minimal clutter and flat land.
Yes, if the radar has an un-obstructed line-of-sight to the target and the target is not obscured by excessive clutter.
Trees or bushes in the way prevent the radar identifying targets behind them although it can cope with a degree of obstruction especially for larger targets. The radar cannot penetrate buildings, walls or wire mesh fences. Areas where the terrain rises or drops significantly relative to the install location will have a lower probability of seeing a given target.
Rough guidance for a 4m install height: at the maximum range of 200m the land should be no more than 3m higher or 6m lower than at the install site.
Scan-360 uses highly directional microwaves that require a direct line-of-sight between the radar and the target. Any objects that get in the way will obscure the target and reduce detection range.
If the landscape has very steep hills or valleys then targets may be obscured behind the ground, or in rare cases, may be so far above or below the radar that it is difficult to detect.
Very dense vegetation and trees will prevent the radar from working correctly. Detection zones must be sufficiently clear of vegetation to achieve the full detection range. Dense woodland, tall and thick shrubs, very long grass and bodies of water reduce detection probability of all radar systems.
Strictly speaking, Scan-360 can detect drones, however it is only effective when the drone is typically flying below 10m altitude.
Scan-360 is designed for ground surveillance, so the antenna directs the microwave energy toward the ground (not up at the sky) and the radar does not measure the height (altitude) of targets.
Ground surveillance radar only needs to point the camera toward the ground at the correct range and bearing. For air surveillance the camera would still point toward the ground so would not necessarily point at the drone unless the drone was flying quite low.
Radars can be misled by reflections from buildings or high-sided vehicles into detecting a legitimate target at the wrong bearing and so moving the camera in the wrong direction.
Also, large moving targets can generate return signals that are so large they can also cause the Radar to misdirect the camera. These effects are only temporary and the radar will usually correct on the next rotation.
All antennas focus the majority of the microwaves into a narrow beam, however there is always some energy emitted in other directions. This unwanted "sidelobe" power level is much lower than power in the main beam. Very large targets seen at sidelobe angles can sometimes appear similar to a very small target in the direction of the main beam, thus appearing outside an exclusion zone.
Our latest radars have very low sidelobe antennas to mitigate this problem.
Scan-360 uses Doppler processing that works best when targets move toward or away from the radar. The probability of detection is reduced when a target crosses the beam.
When "tracking" or "camera tracking" is enabled, the radar will track the first target it comes across. This target is followed until it disappears, in which case it follows the next target seen. When camera tracking is enabled the radar will also switch to follow a high priority target if it is tracking a low priority.
Depending on the radar setting, there are three behaviours:
1) No tracking: The main target from each quadrant is output to the VMS and Live View. All targets can be retrieved via the API.
2) Camera tracking: The target being tracked is output to the VMS and Live View. All targets can be retrieved via the API.
3) Target tracking: The target being tracking is output to the VMS. All 8 tracked targets are output to the Live View.
All targets can be retrieved via the API (unless they were potential targets for a track but dismissed in favour of a more suitable target).
Using target tracking each quadrant (90 degrees) can detect up to 5 targets.
Using target tracking a radar can detect and track a maximum of 8 targets over the entire 360 degrees.
Scan-360 refresh rate is 1Hz. This means it takes one second to scan the entire 360 degrees.
With target tracking the radar will continue to look for a target up to 10 seconds from when it stops moving. If the target is seen after 10 seconds it is considered a new target.